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SAN FRANCISCO nike air force 1 mid 07 black womens , Aug. 24 (Xinhua) -- A new study by Stanford University scholars Jon Krosnick and Neil Malhotra shows that despite most Americans' recognizing that smoking can lead to life-threatening diseases, they don't understand how much that risk increases.


The cause, the two researchers assumed, lies in the misperception of the risk.


Published in PLOS ONE, the study analyzed data from survey interviews of more than 13,000 adults in the United States, including smokers and non-smokers nike air force 1 high black womens , about the prospects of developing lung cancer.


In some previous studies, researchers had asked survey respondents to report how likely they thought it is that smokers and non-smokers will develop lung cancer. If a respondent thought smokers had a 30 percent chance of developing lung cancer and non-smokers a 10 percent chance, that person thinks that smokers are 20 percentage points more likely to develop cancer.


In the new study, the researchers realized that some people might not be thinking about risk that way. Instead, they proposed, people might perceive risk as the ratio of the two numbers, like answering the question nike air force 1 low white womens , "How many times more likely to get lung cancer is a smoker than a non-smoker?" This ratio is called the "relative risk." In the 30 percent vs. 10 percent example, a person thinks of the smoker as three times more likely to develop lung cancer.


This seemingly small change in analytic approach has big consequences: most Americans overestimate the difference between the two rates of lung cancer, namely the risk of smoking, but the vast majority underestimate the relative risk. In essence, they are underestimating how much more likely it is for a smoker to develop lung cancer than a non-smoker.


The researchers did find that people who perceived more relative risk were less likely to start and more likely to quit smoking and those who perceived more of a difference between the two cancer rates were no more or less likely to start or stop smoking.


Therefore, Krosnick, a professor of communication and political science at Stanford puma creeper green bordeaux , and Malhotra, a professor of political economy in the Graduate School of Business, suggested that if people naturally think about such dangers in terms of a ratio, then perhaps rates of smoking would be reduced if Americans are properly informed about such ratios.


For the time being, cigarette package labels in the United States include warnings from the Surgeon General that smoking can cause specific health problems without providing numeric figures to quantify the impact; while in Australia, cigarette labels include quantitative data such as, "Tobacco smoking causes more than four times the number of deaths caused by car accidents."


"Telling people how many times that a person's chances of getting lung cancer increase due to smoking may help the public make more informed choices puma rihanna creeper grey ," Krosnick, the lead author, was quoted as saying in a news release.



A shopper reads a store layout board at the Macy's Herald Square flagship store, Thursday, Nov 28, 2013, in New York.[PhotoIC]

The growth of China's middle class and the development and expansion of cross-border e-commerce is making the upcoming US holiday sales season look like another online shopping extravaganza puma rihanna creeper oatmeal , similar to China's Singles Day.


Single's Day, the brainchild of Alibaba has helped the company clear $9.34 billion in sales volume this past Nov 11. Coupled with the record breaking US IPO, Alibaba CEO Jack Ma has shown that the world is now "flat" thanks to online shopping.


China's e-commerce sector has attracted global attention for its sheer size and huge market potential. Its online retail volume increased by 41 percent year-on-year to 1.85 trillion yuan ($301.5 billion) in 2013, making China the world's largest e-retailing market, according to the Ministry of Commerce.


In May, the State Council issued a guideline that promised measures to facilitate cross-border e-commerce transactions.


"With an estimated trade value of more than 100 billion yuan in 2014 from overseas products, we have reason to believe that the huge potential of this market will further expand China's e-commerce capabilities in the future puma creeper camo orange ," said Patrick Dodd, Managing Director of Nielsen China.


According to a recent report titled "China sees more sophisticated online shoppers", the US-based global information and measurement company said that not only has e-commerce changed China's retail landscape, but it has also given birth to new shopping behaviors among more Internet-dependent consumers, such as the purchase of overseas products online.


The report found nearly 40 percent of online shoppers are between the ages of 26 and 30, with 60 percent claiming a household income of more than 11,000 yuan each month. Compared to men puma rihanna creeper camo , women show more enthusiasm for buying overseas products online as they make up 57 percent of these consumers.


Amazon versus Alibaba


As a promising market with to-be-developed potential for influential competitors in the sector, Amazon China and Alibaba have both started to strategic move.


As Black Friday and Cyber Monday draw closer, promotional pages for purchasing overseas products have appeared on Amazon and its rival, an online shopping site affiliated with Alibaba's e-commerce platform taobao,


Amazon China's strategy appears to be creating "a festival for overseas online shopping". It's an extension of the US company's international strategy. There are about 800,000 items sold on Amazon China's dedicated website for overseas shopping, with its categories ranging from garments puma rihanna creeper red , shoes, makeup to health care and sports.


The site will offer up to 70 percent off for about 35,000 products from 9 am to 4 pm on Friday, 6,000 of which will be exclusive to Amazon.


The company has also set up an alliance with China Merchants Bank. Cust. Cheap Jerseys From China Cheap Jerseys Cheap Jerseys China Free Shipping Cheap Throwback Jerseys Cheap Jerseys China Free Shipping Cheap Authentic NFL Jerseys Cheap Authentic NFL Jerseys Cheap Nike NFL Jerseys Cheap Football Jerseys Wholesale NFL Jerseys China

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